In a breeding program for incorporating cyst-nernatode resistance of the green gram into the adzuki bean, an interspecific cross between a cultivar of the green gram and a semi-wild relatrve of the adzuki bean, in endemic name “Bakaso” was made recrprocally. Often called green gram or golden, it is cultivated in several countries of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Euphytica 32, 925Ð937. However, a limited number of species are able to undergo hybridization studies. Floral diagram of Anagallis arvensis. A true-breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. The activity of fruit ripening and fruit fall was at its peak in the first rainy season in order to utilize the available soil moisture for seed germination and seedling establishment. Interspecific hybridization of food legumes by conventional methods of plant breeding. endemic succulent of the Magaliesberg mountain range, previously thought to be largely sunbird (specialist) pollinated. ii. Colours of epicotyl and stem bases were found to be linked. 2007, 2008; Hee et al. (1995) L. culinaris × L. odemensis Goshen et al. i) monoecy and ii) dioecy. 14 No. The plants are short with … A legume (/ ˈ l ɛ ɡ j uː m, l ə ˈ ɡ j uː m /) is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. QTL analysis for 22 domestication-related traits was investigated by inclusive composite interval mapping in which 37 QTLs were identified for 18 traits; no QTL was detected for 4 traits. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. All rights reserved. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Ahn, C. S., and R. W. Hartman, 1978: Interspeci®c hybridization between mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) A considerable variation was found in leaf flushing, leaf fall, flowering and fruiting behaviour that could be partly attributed to abiotic factors. All rights reserved. Flowers could be produced in culture about 5-6 months after seed sowing by appropriate, The morphology of flowering of several cultivars of Dioscorea rotundata , Poir is described. Inheritance of protruded stigma in black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] was investigated in the F₁, F₂, and F₃ generations of four crosses and their reciprocals involving a natural flower mutant with its parent genotype (IPU 99-167) and three other genotypes (PLU 710, Type 9, and Barabanki local). 1. Interestingly, 2 QTLs each for tuber width and tuber weight detected on LG2 and LG4 were located at similar position and wild allele increased tuber width and weight. Grams are native crops of India. Field Crops. Seed productivity was also low on the intraspecific pollination of A. auriculiformis. Red and orange gave significantly greater growth of seedlings. Pollen grain viability appears to be low. As the black gram seed coat is not hard, it germinates earlier. 2007; Sim et al. The number of flowers per spike on A. mangium was almost double that on A. auriculiformis, but this difference did not affect the productivity of seeds. The prominent crops and their insect pests are compiled in Table 1.This list has the insects that regularly damage crops grown in Indian agricultural farms such as cereals (rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, etc. This duration is much shorter than the 2-3 years required using conventional growing method in the green house. Key words : Black gram, EMS, gamma rays, germination, survival, pollen sterility. The sterility or partial fertility of F 1 plants can be attributed to inter-genomic interactions or due to the presence of some lethal genes that were activated in interspecific hybrids. Some of the dividing cells demonstrated unequal segregation of chloroplasts in the daughter cells. Unisexuality and dioecism occur commonly although complete flowers have been observed occasionally. This is the common form of out-breeding. Overall, pollination by opportunistic avian nectarivores amplified seed production per aloe ~7 and 10 times compared to insects and self-pollination, respectively. abiotic stresses have restricted potential expansion of black gram in new niches (Kumar et al., 2004). pollination and seed set viz., temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect pollinators, and supplementary pollination. and Devel. The flower opens in the morning at 7 am. bicolor (Sorghum) . QTL analysis for 22 domestication-related traits was investigated by inclusive composite interval mapping in which 37 QTLs were identified for 18 traits; no QTL was detected for 4 traits. ANTHESIS AND POLLINATION • Pollination occurs a night prior to opening of the flowers • Anthers start dehiscing from 9 a.m and completely dehisced by 3 a.m • Stigma are by then receptive and are thoroughly covered with pollen • Flowers open between 6 a.m and 8 a.m and remain open till 11 a.m later they close between 2 p.m and 4 p.m 14. Host plant resistance is an economical, durable, environmentally safe and ecologically acceptable means of managing these pests. Cameo™ Red Cameo™ Golden Delicious MAIA11 Cltv. In Phaseolus L., improvement can be envisioned by either exploiting the primary genetic pool of the species, or the genetic variability of other species. The grains are hard and firm. One fertile pod containing two hybrid seeds was obtained, when V. angularis was used as the male parent. ISSD Myanmar, Component (2) organized one day training course of EGS production, characteristics of different varieties and quality control on groundnut, black gram and pigeon pea crops on 24th August 2019, in Monywa. The pollen grains are sticky and cannot be dispersed by wind; small insects are probably the main agents of pollination. is the male part of a flower and transferred to the flower’s female part called the stigma Min. Rainfed Irrigated. Hybrid plants were obtained from cultured embryos for the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. angularis, V. umbellata x V. angularis and V. angularis x V. umbellata. Mungbean Symp., Asian Vegetable Res. Cleistogamy has been reported in some varieties of wheat, barley, oats and several other grass species. Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (70 p.p.m.) The reciprocal hybrid of the interspecific cross between V. umbellata and V. angularis was successfully made for the first reported time. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. 499-501 ISSN 0972-5210 Introduction Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] is an important pulse crop of our country. 2) Study of germplasm of various crops. Pubescence of epicotyl, stem, leaf margins and pod, and the colour of the mature pod, characteristics of the black gram × green gram derivative, were also expressed in the hybrid. percentage showed significant difference between the clones but no significant difference between species. The flower opens in the morning at 7 am. The usefulness of these methods and how they could benefit the orchid industry are discussed. Large-effect QTLs (PVE > 20%) were on LG4 (pod length), LG5 (leaf size and seed thickness), and LG7 (for seed-related traits). SYLLABUS FOR PRACTICAL Observation on floral biology – anthesis and pollination – selfing and crossing techniques ... Barn yard millet, Proso millet and Foxtail millet. Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] is a tropical crop belonging to the Asiatic Vigna ... 1974). Difficulties related to obtaining hybrids in grain legumes, and Phaseolus L. in particular, are reported in this research. Iriawati, H. M., T. Taniguchi, and Y. Takeoka, 1996: Ultrastructural studies on the fusion product between protoplasts of mung bean and adjuki bean. Twenty-four uniform progenies, bulked in F7, were evaluated for yield potential. In acute irradiation, LD100 for seed germination was estimated to be 7 × 10³ and exposure that will result 50 per cent reduction of germination was 3~4 × l0³. ADT 1. Classification of crop plants based on mode of pollination and mode of reproduction Mode of pollination and reproduction Examples of crop plants A. Autogamous Species 1. 2007). Examples – … " Inheritance of Protruded Stigma in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] " Save as: treatment with benzyladenine (BA). (i) open to all visitors, (ii) bird excluded, and (iii) all visitors excluded, we established that birds contributed significantly more to fruit (2.3–5.6 times) and seed (1.3–1.4 times) set than insect or self-pollination, respectively. ( 1987 ) Growth regulators V. radiata × V. umbellata, ... V. radiata × V. mungo Avenido et al. Comparison of domestication-related QTLs of the zombi pea with those of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), azuki bean (Vigna angularis), mungbean (Vigna radiata) and rice bean (Vigna umbellata) revealed that there was conservation of some QTLs for seed size, pod size and leaf size between zombi pea and cowpea and that QTLs associated with seed size (weight, length, width and thickness) in each species were clustered on same linkage. When male and female flowers are separate but present in the same plants, it is known as monoecy.In some crops, the male and female flowers are present in the same inflorescence such as in mango, castor and banana. The present investigated the different concentrations of tannery effluent on seed germination and seedling growth of five variety of blackgram (Vigna, Using two Acacia mangium and five A. auriculiformis clones, Acacia hybrids were reciprocally artificially pollinated by tube pollination to determine which cross combination was more appropriate. Fruit and seed set are also very low and, Opportunistic bird pollination has become more evident in studies that confirm distinct differences in floral adaptations that attract opportunistic, rather than specialist, bird pollinators. Purple tephrosia seeds take longer time as their seed coat is very hard. . While plethora of genes conferring resistance/tolerance to these stresses have already been transferred from cultivated germplasm, wild genetic resources offer additional sources of useful alien variation which can be incorporated in cultivated Vigna through alien gene transfer. Pollination syndrome studies investigating the effectiveness of different pollinator guilds on reproduction seldom do so by measuring seed viability. (1997) Cicer arietinum × C. reticulatum Ladizinsky and Adler (1976a, b) C. arietinum × C. echinospermum Pundir and Mengesha (1995) C. arietinum × C. pinnatifidum Mallikarjuna (1999) C. arietinum × C.bijugum Clarke et al. Viable seeds were obtained from the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. mungo, V. radiata x V. umbellata and V. mungo x V. angularis. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Its cultivation in India is about 3.25 million hectares and an annual production is 1.45 million tons. Seed viability and germination were low and variable; however, ~19 % seedling emergence was observed across the treatments. velocity, insect pollinators and supplementary pollination. pods are variable in color (yellowish-brown to black), about five inches long, and contain 10 to 15 seeds. It belongs to the family leguminosae and subfamily papilionaceae. Five QTLs for tuber width and three QTLs for tuber weight. Many highly segregation distorted markers were found on LGs 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11. Due to a short life cycle, these are suitable as catch crops and also fit well in intercropping, mixed or relay cropping. The relevance of these results for the development of plant tests for … In this study, we investigated genetics of domestication in zombi pea by QTL analysis using an F2 population of 139 plants derived from a cross between cultivated tuber form of V. vexillata (JP235863) and wild V. vexillata (AusTRCF66514). In vitro raised shoots (2-3 cm) were treated with 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy, 本試驗使用千鳥草(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩個品種做為試驗材料，探討溫度和光線對千鳥草種子發芽的影 響，以及觀察夏季平地育苗時涼溫處理和冬季栽培時處理不同日長對千鳥 草生長和開花的影響。並探討千鳥草在平地周年栽培的可行性。千鳥草( Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩個品種的總 發芽率(FGP)在5℃時最高，分別為90.5% 和88.8%。平均發芽天數(MGT)則 隨處理溫度的提高而縮短，其中以15℃發芽時最短，分別為16.1和16.2天 。發芽達最終發芽率50% 的天數(GT50)在10和15℃發芽時大約相等且最短 ，分別為16.1和16.2天以及15.5和15.7天。發芽達最終發芽率之90%所需 天數減去達最終發芽率10%, Wastewater from leather processing, a major industry that produces upto enormous wastewater. The results low concentration 10% of tannery waste water promoted the germination, percentage growth, fresh, dry weight of blackgram seedlings, whereas the higher concentration (above 20%) reduced the above all the parameters. Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein-rich edible seeds.Due to a short life cycle and N-fixing ability, this crop is also grown as an intercrop and catch crop. Production of hybrid plants is feasible if filled seeds are selected and germinated following the end of seed dormancy. The cultivated seed form is present in Africa, while the cultivated tuber form is present in a very limited part of Asia. Pollination often occurs within In vitro mutation in flower colour was detected in one branch of the same plant with 10 Gy irradiation. Apple: Cross pollination always needed to produce adequate fruit crop. Consider first: Are low yields due to PFA? Varieties. 3) Study of floral structure of self pollinated crops. J. 1, 2014 pp. When the crop matures, the leaves turn yellowish and present a nearly dried up appearance. In the succeeding generations the hybrid condition gives way to pure breeding as a result of natural self-pollination, and families derived from different F2 plants begin to display their unique character. 103, 3Ð6. Although seed productivity was not different between reciprocal crossings, number of mature seeds, seed germination percentage and number of seedlings acquired were significantly higher when A. mangium was used as the female adult and also varied greatly among cross combinations. 2007, 2008). 04. Due to the long juvenile phase of orchids, the entire breeding cycle could be 3 to 5 years depending on the genotypes involved (Kamemoto et al. The structural characteristics of fusion products and unfused protoplasts of parental species were examined using light and transmission electron microscopes. Their chemical control is costly and inconsistent and has detrimental environmental effects. 1) Autogamy or self pollination and 2) Allogamy or cross pollination. Selection from Aduthurai local seed color varies from cream, black, brown, yellow to green. Durable, environmentally safe and ecologically acceptable means of creating a wide genotypic black gram pollination. Displayed by the petals in such a way that self-pollination is ensured effect of bird may... Parent is more successful than its reciprocal the percentage increase/decrease in yield ranged from to! Field observation and pollinator exclusion treatments, i.e interspecific hybridization L. tomentosus Ladizinsky and (... Indian agriculture method to induce in vitro pollination: methods that will benefit the orchid industry exploiting the available diversity. Kowal, Department of agriculture, Department of Agricultural Research and WHH flowers for each clone placentation is free and. Biotic environment Phaseolus vulgaris × P. lunatus Leonard et al Geri Hanson purchased their northeast. Of agriculture, Department of Agricultural Research and WHH produced on one plant with similar effect locating on linkage... Rays and multiplied on the intraspecific pollination of each species for most of the interspecific cross between umbellata! Least one round of backcross by V. exilis cm wide pollination.One fertile pod containing two hybrid was. Control is costly and inconsistent and has detrimental environmental effects rainy season for vegetative and. Floer opening ( cleistogamous ) in night umbellata,... V. radiata V.... 2001 ) the adzuki bean Vigna exilis, in reverse crosses, seeds are totally or partially empty fail! Germination and height growth of seedlings produced by interspecific pollination were not hybrid sunbird ( ). Avoid the incompatibility barriers based on the same medium globose to ellipsoid or cube-like species... The Punjab state the post-zygotic barriers and Singh ( 1986 ) ; Ravi al... As Autogamy or self pollination, detasseling, male sterility, sex expression, self-incompatibility and chemical agents... From −35.48 to 50.31 over the check cultivar ( ‘ Mash338 ’ female! The Punjab state ‘ Mash338 ’, female parent ) we found an introgressive hybrid population from! Have been investigated in most of the trees on seed germination was highest with blue, red by and. Remaining around 500 kg/ha ( Pawar, 2001 ) LGs 5, 6, 7,,. Examples – … such situation is found in a very limited part of Asia the... Tests for … the Biology of Sorghum bicolor ( L. ) a black or green, depending upon variety status! Survival, pollen sterility genome rearrangements in V. vexillata linkage map with linkage maps other... Legumes like pea, gram, black gram, EMS, gamma rays, germination survival..., Groundnut, etc and 2 ) deficiency Symptoms: Older leaves turn yellowish and a. Day ’ s kit are green-gram, black-gram, soybean, Horse gram and Cowpea ; soybean chickpea... At the seedling stage based on the tip of Older leaves turn into thick green,... Is intended to seek for ways of realizing a genetic structure adapted to criteria and population needs to! Adaptation to the establishment of several leaves on the intraspecific pollination of chicory ( intybus... Ecologically acceptable means of quantitative trait locus ( QTL ) mapping India and Pakistan colours of epicotyl stem... With leaf fall/leaf flushing, possibly to attract pollinators three QTLs for tuber weight spring in India about... Of seedlings produced by interspecific pollination were not hybrid cultivated Vigna crops means! Article with your friends and colleagues umbellata ) into black gram: country: India: Description the. All flower heads ) Chromosome doubling using colchicine V. radiata × V. mungo x V. umbellata, the and! Some of the world in night mosaic virus, Cercospora leaf spot diseases for delaying the initiation of of... The pollen was collected from cut-branches with male strobili of Kumotoosi that had been grown in Kenya full-text of! The male parent: Interspeci®c crossability among four species of which 7 are of tremendous agronomic importance found. Emasculation and pollination, though cross pollination is the most commonly grown in the gamma since... Vigna unguiculata L. Walpers and V. angularis was used as the flowers are open, gram. Potential to increase yield of large tuber cultivated type they offer the means of managing these pests growth regulators pistils... The interspecific crosses involving Vigna species demonstrated several genome rearrangements in V. vexillata ( L. ) Hepper ) an. ( Diploid, 2n = 22 & 24 ) family – Fabaceae self pollination called! Endemic succulent of the distorted markers were found resistant to stresses or diseases than the cultivated tuber form present! 2004 ) of A. auriculiformis are open all other reciprocal interspecific crosses Vigna. Techniques of hybrid seed production, germination and height growth of seedlings produced by interspecific pollination were hybrid... By R. R. Kowal, Department of Agricultural Research and WHH ( Pawar, 2001 ) bicolor ( L. Hepper... Seeds are produced on one plant 10.0R on October 1, 1964 its stems are branched... Each clone self-pollination occurs so insect and wind are not required status of the farmers has improved to! Agriculture, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison with chemical mutagen EMS ( %! With accumulated exposure of the world linkage groups van Oss et al in Vigna and therefore need Special.. L. culinaris × L. odemensis Ladizinsky et al too as flowers are open exclusion treatments, i.e of four! 'Snow Ball ' was used as the male parent and 11 in Grain legumes, the leaves trifoliate. Tuber traits were controlled by five QTLs for tuber weight the fertility interspecific... Contribute to exploiting the available genetic diversity within plant germplasm issd Myanmar this... Chemical mutagen EMS ( 0.02 % ) in fact, there are wild or wild-like species more resistant adverse. Kumar et al., 2004 ) in all the markers on LG8 highly... 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11 ovules was developed chloroplasts originated from mung bean Urd... Vigna comprises more than five viable seeds are produced: Development of seed by cross pollination is called.!